If you live in Northern California, this past week you could not escape the constant news coverage around PG&E’s planned power shutdowns to roughly 800,000 households and businesses. But there is also a decent chance that your home or business either had the power shut off by PG&E, the largest publicly-owned utility in the US, or it was scheduled to be shutdown.
Our own home located in a San Francisco/Oakland suburb was scheduled to have the power turned off on four occasions starting at midnight Tuesday October 7, but we were fortunate in that it never was turned off. The primary preparation my wife and I took for the planned shutdown was to charge up our EVs to about 95%.
Since I work from home and my wife works part time only about 5 minutes from our house, we were mostly concerned about food and beverages spoiling if the refrigerator/freezer went off. But I didn’t really give the shutdown’s impact a huge amount of thought until Thursday morning.
I awoke that morning to see an email from the producer at the San Francisco news radio station KCBS asking if I would be willing to be interviewed live on air later that day on how the shutdown is affecting EV owners. The producer had seen the EVAdoption site referenced in this Washington Post article, California’s power outage means problems for electric cars. Tesla says charge up, quick.
There is nothing like a live broadcast interview to get you researching and thinking about a topic, in this case the impact of power outages on charging electric vehicles. Being without power for a few days can clearly have a short-term impact or inconvenience for EV owners, but I was more intrigued by the larger challenges and potential opportunities that could result from these planned power outages. Following are my current thoughts:
Increased Range Requirements?: If an entire region has the power shutdown for more than 2-3 days, then having a long-range BEV (300-400 miles of range) becomes critical. Someone with a 60-mile round trip work commute, for example, could go to and from work for around 5 days. If charging was available at, or to/from, work – then concerns around range would be minimized. But owning an EV with well less than say 200 miles of range, for example, would not provide much comfort during a multiple-day power outage.
Awareness and concerns about power outages (planned or not) will only reinforce to some American consumers why they will prefer or feel they require long-range battery packs of 400-500 miles (see 500 Miles of Range: One Key to Late Adopters Embracing EVs). With the number of power outages on the rise due to flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, snow storms, fires and other factors, the fear of being without electricity for several days might become a growing concern among potential EV buyers.
Of course, gas stations also require electricity to pump fuel and so an extended power outage would bring gas- and diesel-powered vehicles to a halt. Whereas homeowners and businesses with solar and battery storage systems could continue charging EVs.
PHEV Flexibility: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) provide the flexibility of being able to run your car on gasoline even if you don’t have convenient access to charge your BEV. With range anxiety already a concern of many potential EV buyers, and whether being without electricity for several days is a logical fear or not, PHEVs give drivers two fuel options rather than just one. If the fear of more power outages occurring in the future increases, it may also fuel a growing preference among some consumers to own a PHEV versus a BEV.
Vehicle-to-Home (V2H): While the concern about being able to charge your EV is top of mind for many people during periods of grid outages, the flip side is the huge future potential vehicle-to-home (V2H) systems that use your EV’s battery pack to power your home.
According to a research team at the University of Austin and authors of the research report, Plug-In Vehicle to Home (V2H) Duration and Power Output Capability, “… combining a BEV or PHEV with a solar photovoltaic system provides the opportunity to create a single home off-grid microgrid with considerable capabilities to provide backup power and that has the sufficient voltage regulation, energy storage, and safety disconnects.”
Our results indicate that a residential V2H system coupled with rooftop PV could provide backup power for approximately 19-600 hours, depending on the time of year and the precise vehicle configuration.– Plug-In Vehicle to Home (V2H) Duration and Power Output Capability
Currently the only EVs I am aware of that are capable of bi-directional charging (through the CHAdeMO charging connector) are the Nissan LEAF, Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV, and discontinued Honda Fit. To convert electricity from an EV to power your home, however, also then requires an inverter, such as the Power Manager from Honda.
V2G (grid), V2H (home) and V2B (building) systems, collectively known as “V2X”, are fairly popular in Japan, but are also being tested and deployed in Europe and through companies in the US such as Fermata Energy (V2B) and Nuvve (V2G). For now it appears that there are no publicly-available/off-the-shelf solutions in the US that make bi-directional EVs V2H capable.
A major concern around V2X is that the additional charging and discharging increases the stress on EV batteries and could reduce the lifespan of battery packs. As such, unanswered questions remain on how much increased cycles will impact battery life and then how does this impact warranties and battery replacement costs? I strongly believe these concerns can be mitigated, however, simply through manufacturers monitoring and limiting the frequency of bi-directional charges.
I have high hopes that the California planned power outages combined with blackouts from storms will encourage automakers to introduce vehicle-to-home solutions in the coming years so that EVs can power homes during temporary outages (and for on-going regular power needs).
Besides few EVs being capable of bi-directional charging, a major hurdle for V2H is that Tesla executives are on record as not being fans of V2G and would also rather have consumers and businesses purchase their Powerwall battery storage solutions than tap into their EV battery packs. Tesla not enabling any form of V2X is key because the company’s EVs account for roughly 50% of all EV sales in the US and ~60% in California.(Elon Musk did mention in a tweet in 2018 that bi-directional charging might be worth revisiting.)
Very early on, we had the ability to use the car as a battery outputting power. Maybe worth revisiting that.— Elon Musk (@elonmusk) July 4, 2018
Battery Backup for EV Charging Stations: Unless they have a diesel generator or large battery backup system in place, public charging stations will be unavailable when the grid does down. With significant national attention resulting from the PG&E outages, large commercial battery storage systems like Tesla’s Powerpacks could see significant growth in demand to ensure adequate power supply for both Level 2 and DCFS locations, especially those operated by the major charging networks.
Public Charger Availability Information: One concern in regions with power outages will be that for those public charging stations that have power (whether not affected or having back-up power supply), we could see a rush on drivers charging up their EVs like what can happen at gas stations during fuel shortages or in advance of big storms or evacuations.
Ensuring EV drivers have accurate and up-to-date information then will be key during power outages and the charging network operators and charging app providers like PlugShare and ChargeHub must be up to the task and have their own backup systems. Information on charging locations – including whether stations (connections) are operating, their current charging speeds, how many are connections are currently in use or available, and estimated wait times – will be vital during widespread power outages.
Network operators like ChargePoint also enable their customers to place themselves on a waitlist to reserve their spot in line. Solutions like these will be key during outages to minimize long wait times and disorderly customers.
Solar + Battery Storage: In areas like California I expect to see increased demand for solar and battery storage as consumers and businesses alike realize they need to become less dependent upon the grid. This trend affects the electric vehicle market because solar and battery storage owners are much more likely to purchase an EV.
While very old data, 39% of EV owners also had solar PV installations according to a 2012 survey of California residents. A more recent 2019 survey of CleanTechnica readers found that 28% of non-Tesla drivers and 31% of Tesla owners in North America also had solar panels on their home’s roof or property.
The fear of having the electricity shut off and not being able to charge your EV (or charge conveniently) for several days was probably not something that most people (current or potential EV owners) previously gave much thought to. But thanks to years of neglect in trimming trees near its power lines and implementing planned safety power shut downs, PG&E has now added “power anxiety” to the list of fears about EVs that also includes “range anxiety.” As a result, look for many California EV owners in particular to now consider adding battery backup storage power for their homes AND their EVs.
If automakers embrace vehicle to home and grid capabilities in the coming years, they have a chance to minimize the fear of EV “power anxiety” and turn into a huge advantage and opportunity for EVs to become mobile energy storage vehicles.